Turnlock fasteners are used to secure inspection plates, doors, and other removable panels on aircraft. Turnlock fasteners are also referred to by such terms as quick opening, quick action, and stressed panel fasteners. The most desirable feature of these fasteners is that they permit quick and easy removal of access panels for inspection and servicing purposes.
Turnlock fasteners are manufactured and supplied by a number of manufacturers under various trade names. Some of the most commonly used are the Dzus, Camloc, and Airloc.
The Dzus turnlock fastener consists of a stud, grommet, and receptacle. The grommet is made of aluminum or aluminum alloy material. It acts as a holding device for the stud. Grommets can be fabricated from 1100 aluminum tubing, if none are available from normal sources.
The spring is made of steel, cadmium plated to prevent corrosion. The spring supplies the force that locks or secures the stud in place when two assemblies are joined.
The studs are fabricated from steel and are cadmium plated. They are available in three head styles; wing, flush, and oval. Body diameter, length, and head type may be identified or determined by the markings found on the head of the stud. The diameter is always measured in sixteenths of an inch. Stud length is measured in hundredths of an inch and is the distance from the head of the stud to the bottom of the spring hole.
A quarter of a turn of the stud (clockwise) locks the fastener. The fastener may be unlocked only by turning the stud counterclockwise. A Dzus key or a specially ground screwdriver locks or unlocks the fastener.
Camloc fasteners are made in a variety of styles and designs. Included among the most commonly used are the 2600, 2700, 40S51, and 4002 series in the regular line, and the stressed panel fastener in the heavy duty line. The latter is used in stressed panels which carry structural loads.
The Camloc fastener is used to secure aircraft cowlings and fairings. It consists of three parts; a stud assembly, a grommet, and a receptacle. Two types of receptacles are available, the rigid type and the floating type.
The stud and grommet are installed in the removable portion; the receptacle is riveted to the structure of the aircraft. The stud and grommet are installed in either a plain, dimpled, countersunk, or counterbored hole, depending upon the location and thickness of the material involved.
A quarter turn (clockwise) of the stud locks the fastener. The fastener can be unlocked only by turning the stud counterclockwise.
The Airloc fastener consists of three parts, a stud, a cross pin, and a stud receptacle. The studs are manufactured from steel and case hardened to prevent excessive wear. The stud hole is reamed for a press fit of the cross pin.
The total amount of material thickness to be secured with the Airloc fastener must be known before the correct length of stud can be selected for installation. The total thickness of material that each stud will satisfactorily lock together is stamped on the head of the stud in thousandths of an inch (0.040, 0.070, 0.190, etc.). Studs are manufactured in three head styles; flush, oval, and wing.
The cross pin is manufactured from chrome-vanadium steel and heat treated to provide maximum strength, wear, and holding power. It should never be used the second time; once removed from the stud, it should be replaced with a new pin.
Receptacles for Airloc fasteners are manufactured in two types, rigid and floating. Sizes are classified by number - No. 2, No. 5, and No. 7. They are also classified by the center-to-center distance between the rivet holes of the receptacle: No. 2, 3/4 inch; No. 5, 1 inch; and No. 7, 1 3/8 inch. Receptacles are fabricated from high carbon, heat treated steel. An upper wing assures ejection of the stud when unlocked and enables the cross pin to be held in a locked position between the upper wing, cam, stop, and wing detent, regardless of the tension to which the receptacle is subjected.